The Motion of the Sun
By John T. Lawson
The circular plane of the earth and ocean an immense sun-dial, witnessing to its own level and immobility.
I The position of the sun in the firmament in relation to his diurnal course indicates the time of day. The meridians are straight lines from the north centre and diverge more and more southwards, are 24 in number, corresponding with the 24 hours of the day. The terrestrial surface is the dial plate. The time of day advances according to the progress of the sun in the firmament. The sun moves from east to west and comes round to the same point in 24 hours, thus completing a circular path above a stationary, planary earth. A man looks, yes actually sees the sun move in an arc of a circle, and in so watching the progress of the sun his eye-line is something like the finger on the earth-dial. During the summer solstice he sees the sun rise a little north of east, then passes on to east, south-east, then to the meridian, then south by west, south-west, west, next sets a little north of west’. A man watching the sun in its daily course, measures very nearly two-thirds of the circle, both of the earth plane and of the firmamental path of the sun.
The motion of the shadow on the sun dial in some part of a circle or curve around the column is caused by the motion of the sun in an arc of a circle, in the same way as the shadow of a narrow bottle in a kind of curve on a table is caused by moving a light in a circle around the bottle. The motion of the shadow on one side the bottle corresponds with the motion of the light on the other. The light moves in both cases and the surface on which the shadow is cast is stationary in both cases. Our own body may serve as a column to cast the shadow. That the earth is a plane was believed by the ancients. Yes, was believed by men for 5,500 years. Narrien in his history of astronomy says; “ The accounts collected from the most ancient authors concerning the nature of the universe coincide nearly with each other in representing the earth as a plane, bounded on its whole circumference by an ocean of vast extent.
We say that the position of the sun in the firmament indicates the time of day. The sun completes a circular path in the firmament in 24 hours. Rising in the east, then advancing to the noon-day position over the southern horizon at 12 o’clock, setting in the west. Then during our night passing from west along the other side the north centre to the east, where we see him rise in the morning. If the sun was stationary and the earth revolved our day would only be six hours long and our night 18 hours long, and the sxm instead of moving in an arc of a circle, or completing a cireula’- path, it would rise, pass over head and set in the plane of our position. At 12 o’clock the sun would not be over our southern horizon, but would be setting. The fact that the sun is over our southern horizon at 12 o’clock and that it is noon along the whole meridian proves that the earth is a plane and stationary and that it is the sun that moves. To place the matter of the sun’s moving above the earth beyond a doubt, the observations of arctic travellers may be quoted. Captain Parry and several of his officers on ascending high land near the arctic circle repeatedly saw for 24 hours the sun describing an arc of a circle upon the northern horizon.
During the summer solstice the sun is above the horizon for 16 hours 26 minutes when he is 1035 miles nearer to us than the equator. When on the equator he is above the horizon for 12 hours. The sun, during the summer solstice, being vertical at the tropic of cancer, 1035 miles north of the equator, is the cause of the day being then 3 hours 26 minutes longer than at the equinox. Captain Beechy says: “ Yery few of us had ever seen the Sun at midnight, and this night being particularly clear, we saw him sweeping majestically along the northern horizon.
In July, 1865, when the sun was at the summer solstice, Mr. Campbell, United States Minister to Norway, with a party of gentlemen went far enough north to see the sun at midnight. They were 69° North latitude and they ascended a cliff 1000 feet above the arctic sea. It was late and the sun swung along the northern horizon from west to east. We all stood silently looking at our watches. When both hands stood together at 12 midnight the full, round orb hung triumphantly above the wave a bridge of gold spangled the waters between us and him. There he shone in silent majesty which knew no setting. We involuntarily took off our hats, no word was said. During the summer solstice at our latitude there are only 8 hours and 24 minutes out of the 24 that we do not see the sun. Going as far north as these gentlemen went would just be extending our horizon 8 hours and 24 minutes, so that we would see the sun describe that part of his circle from west to east, that we do not see in this latitude.
II. The position of the snn in the firmament in relation to his monthly courses indicates the season. The sun’s revolutions from solstice to solstice are eccentric or spiral. It is summer during his 90 eccentric revolutions from June to September. It is autumn during his 90 revolutions from September to the winter solstice. Winter during those from the winter solstice to the March equinox, and spring during his 90 spiral revolutions from March to the summer solstice. The sun’s speed per hour on the equator from east to west is 1035 miles, his speed north or south in 90 days is 1035 miles and this distance embraces 15 degrees latitude. When the sun is moving from the Tropic of Cancer towards the equator it is summer in the north and the days are 14 and 15 hours long, it is then winter in the south where the days are 11 and 12 hours long. When the sun is moving from the Tropic of Capricorn northward towards the equator, it is summer in the south and the days there are 13 and 12 hours long,
III. The circular plane of the earth and ocean as an immense sun-dial witnesses to its own level and immobility. The shadow on a sun-dial in some part of a circle or ellipse is caused by the motion of the sun in an arc of a circle, and if the sun moves then the earth is stationary. If the earth moved then the end of the shadow would not describe a circle, but would describe a straight line. When the sun is on the meridian then it is 12 o’clock along the whole meridian line. This would not be if the meridian line were a semi-circle as on a globe. The mariner’s compass points north and south at the same time, but it could not do so if north and south were at the centre of opposite hemispheres. This coincides with the meridian which is a straight line north and south. The north is the one fixed point, the centre; the south is a vast circumference, a circular boundary; to all parts of this circular boundary the south point of the compass shifts around as it is carried around the central north. There is therefore n» south point or pole, but an infinity of points forming a vast circumference.
The meridians are straight lines north and south, and latitude is distance along the meridian line. The degrees ol. latitnde are 57.5 not 90 as upon the globular theory where the meridians are semi-circles. 57.5 is the proportion of radius to circumference, and the degree ot latitude is a definite, unvarying quantity as measured throughout, upon the total meridian length. It is 69 1/4 miles upon a plane surface and this agrees with the most exact measurements ever made on the face of the earth by men of greatest skill and by the best instruments.
The Swedish Government in latitude 66° 20′ 10” makes a degree of latitude 265,782 feet, that is more than 69 miles.
The Russian Government, 58° 17′ 37” = 265,368 ft. more than 69 miles again.
The English Goernment, 52° 35′ 45” = 364,971 ft., 69 miles
The French Government, 46° 52′ 2” = 364,872 ft., 69 miles
The Roman Government, 39° 12′ 0” = 363,786 ft., 69 miles
The American Govern’t, 1° 31′ 0” = 362,808 ft., 68 ½ miles
The Indian Government, 16° 8′ 22” = 363,013 ft.
The African Cape of
Good Hope 35° 43′ 20” = 364,059 ft., 69 miles
If the earth were really flattened at the poley the degrees would shorten in going from the equator towards the north, and yet men of the greatest skill, using the most perfect instruments, making the most exact measurements ever made on the face of the earth have found results the very reverse of the Newtonian theory. Well, then, 57 ½ degrees of’latitude from the north centre to equator being proportion of radius to circumference (on a level surface of course) give us 69 ½ miles to a degree, and this agrees very nearly with the beforementioned exact measurements, the most exact measurements ever made on the lace of the earth, by men ot the greatest skill, using the most perfect instruments.
Parallels of latitude are circles concentric with the northern centre. A degree of latitude is a definite and unvarying quantity as measured throughout upon the total meridian length. But a degree of longitude is a varying quantity, according to the radial distance. On the equator, the degree of latitude will equal the degree of longitude. North of the equator, latitude exceeds longitude; south of that, longitude exceeds latitude. The Meridians are straight lines from the centre to the circumference 24 in number to correspond with the 24 hours of the day. There are six parallels of latitude—three North and three South of the Equator. The distance between these parallels trom each other and from the Equator, is precisely the same as between any two meridians on the equatorial circle. This distance on the equator is 1,035 miles, a l-24th part ot 25,000 miles. The parwlels of latitude show sections of 15* or 1,035 miles each. The sun’s speed per hour on the equator is 1,035 miles, and the distance northward from the equator to the summer solstice, which the sun makes in 90 days; or in 90 eccentric or spiral revolutions is also 1,035 miles. This is the sun’s northward journey, and it decreases its orbit and its speed in proportion to this distance. The distance southward from the equator to the winter solstice, which the sun makes also in 90 days, 90 eccentric or spiral revolutions, from September to December is again 1,044 miles. This is the sun’s southward journey, and it increases its orbit and its speed in precisely the same ratio. Just as the revolution ot the sun in his 24 hour path, trom East to East again gives us alternate day and night, just so does the increase southward or decrease northward of its orbit, provide for the change of seasons.
The sun remains at each solstice 64 houra=-two and a half days = (and 8 hours over), before renewing its spiral courses northwards or southwards, so that its orbit tor those extra five days (and eight hours) is concentric ; at the other 360 revolutions it is eccentric or spiral, giving the two solstitial months June and December 32J days each; the other ten just 30 days each. This doctrine of the Earth plane presents educational advantages—would greatly facilitate the progress of the scholar, boy, or girl in his or her physical geography. By adding pleasure to the study it would make their progress easy and rapid.
The works of God in nature are a counterpart of His word, and when studied attentively; when spelled out carefully, give emphasis, otten a startling emphasis to His word. There are many sentences with great depth, and breadth, and height of meaning. “ Encompassed the waters with bounds until day and night come to an end,” or “ until the end of light with darkness.”
“ The face of the deep is frozen,” referring undoubtedly to the far South—the solidly frozen region. The barriers of ice – the the cliffs of ice—the solid, impassaMe ramparts of ice.
John T. Lawson
Parry Sound Disttict