History of Astronomy From The Roman Empire To The Present, part 17
Einstein’s Theories Examined
What Einstein suggests is this:
The observer is located on the surface of an earth which is rotating on its axis, and at the same time travelling through space at many thousands of miles an hour, consequently his place, or locality, is continually changing with respect to an imaginary point fixed in space. Notwithstanding this change of place, electro-magnetic laws appear to act precisely as they would if this place was not changing its position with respect to that point. Therefore Einstein argues that electro-magnetic currents must, in reality, vary their speed, and so adapt themselves to the changing conditions in such a manner as to “seem the same to the observer as if he had not changed his position.” Unfortunately he is unable to show any reason why electro-magnetic action should do this remarkable thing; for he treats it as a thing that had intelligence, as if it wilfully acted in a manner calculated to deceive the observer.
When reduced to its essence, this argument proves to be no more logical than the idea that the street might be moving while the wagon was at rest. Einstein has been betrayed into supposing a thing that is altogether impossible, i.e. that a physical law can act in an unnatural manner, and yet produce an effect which appears to be normal; because he began by assuming that the locality of the observer was changing, and that assumption was untrue! Now if he can realize the fact that the earth is actually at rest, he will find that his difficulties all disappear; and that Electro-magnetic laws do not alter, neither does the locality of the observer change.
But as Einstein persisted in shutting his eyes to the fact that the earth is stationary he did not see the incongruity of his assumptions concerning electromagnetic action, so that— in order to support his contention— he was led still further into error, and compelled to repudiate two of the Laws of Dynamics, viz.: 1. “Lengths of rigid bodies are unaffected by motion of the frame of reference;” and 2, “Measured times are likewise unaffected.”
He says that these two laws of dynamics are untrue, and thought to prove they were wrong by the foregoing argument, so it becomes necessary for us to prove the fallacy of that argument in such a manner as to leave no doubt whatever as to what is true, and what is false; the two “Laws of Dynamics” 1 and 2, being the stake at issue.
Einstein believes that the earth is rotating on its axis in the direction of the arrow in diagram 28, at the rate of 1,000 miles an hour; and that at the same time it is travelling, en mass, in the same general direction along its orbit at 66,000 miles an hour; therefore he thinks that an electro-magnetic current must travel from B to A in less time than it will take in travelling from A to B, because B is all the while running away from A, while A is always going towards B. Therefore it appears that the measured length of a current passing from B to A (and also the time it takes) will be shorter than the measured length and time of a current passing in the opposite direction from A to B; (hence his contention that lengths of bodies and measured times must both be affected by the motion of the observer.)
Of course we know that his premises were wrong, and that A and B are both located on an earth which is at rest; but, for the purpose of the argument, we will waive that, and assume the Copernican astronomy to be true. Then his argument is not so unreasonable as it seemed; indeed it almost has the appearance of being true; but Einstein has forgotten that the observers at A and B are both on the same earth— that they both use the same Greenwich Mean Time— and that the Electro-magnetic wave passes from one place to the other by convention— so that the earth’s atmosphere offers the same facility to its passage from A to B, as it does from B to A.
And that is the trifle that turns the scale against him. The fact that the whole operation takes place within the terrestrial atmosphere gives equal conditions to an electro-magnetic current passing in any direction within that atmosphere; the same being unaffected by anything that may, or may not, take place in ethereal space, which the earth and its atmosphere in its entirety is unconscious of. Thus, an electro-magnetic wave passes from A to B in the same time as it passes from B to A, just as a train travelling at a uniform speed of 60 miles an hour goes from Bristol to London in the same time as it will go from London to Bristol; while the length of the railway track measures the same from Bristol to London as it does from London to Bristol.
And so the Laws of Dynamics 1 and 2 remain true; while Einstein’s contention has been proven false.
The whole hypothesis of Relativity has failed, both in the mass and in detail, under our examination, so that, unable to support itself, it can no longer aspire to support any theory of the universe. Therefore our judgment remains unaltered. Copernican Astronomy stands condemned, and has lost its last, and perhaps its ablest, living advocate.